The main challenge is longevity and scope of autonomous sensors.
The main challenges in the Arctic are to get autonomous biogeochemical sensors to work for a longer time and collect data from different locations. The goal is to collect data that can be used to address processes like CO2-uptake and storage, deoxygenation, ocean acidification and biological changes. In INTAROS biogeochemistry is defined as the inorganic carbon cycle variables, nutrients, oxygen and related physical biological data. The inorganic carbon system data are normally stored in the SOCAT and GLODAP databases.
Results from INTAROS:
From bottom-anchored moorings deployed under ice the goal was to collect data from the SAMI instrument for one year. But due to several problems only about four months of good data was obtained. In the AWIPEW observatory in Kongsfjorden biogeochemical data have been collected successfully for several years, but the observations stopped in January 2021 because the pandemic prevented personnel to maintain the system. AWIPEW is the only observatory providing high-resolution measurements of CO2 in Arctic sea water with transmission of data to users in near-real time. Biogeochemical data are also collected at the Hausgarten observatory in the Fram Strait and from cruises in the west Greenland coast. In Baffin Bay a series of Bio-ARGO floats have been used to collect physical and biogeochemical data, contributing to the global Argo programme. Sections of data are also collected from the FerryBox operating between Tromsø and Svalbard.
Left: Map of the sailing route of M/S Norbjørn operating the NIVA Ferry-Box between Tromsø and Svalbard. Right: Time series of fCO2 measurements along the sailing route for the period June - November 2020.
Left: Map of Kongsfjorden in Svalbard and where the AWIPEW observatory is located in Ny-Ålesund. Right: Time series of pCO2 data from 2015 to 2021, where blue shows measurements and red calculated estimates.